The polarity of freedom and destiny speaks most directly to the entanglement of existential philosophy and a robust conception of god’s will. If god wills that history unfold in a certain manner, how can the means through which this was accomplished be held ethically responsible? People amount to puppets. On the other hand, if we are radically responsible for our actions, there is no recourse, no external force upon which we can shift the blame of our actions; there can have been no god who forced our hand.

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By focusing her energy on the Holocaust, Lang clarifies features common to the relationship of expression to existence because the Holocaust so clearly demonstrates the inadequacies of language to facilitate wholly an understanding of experience. We can have faithful representations insofar as language is stretched to accomplish the task, but the inherent limitations of language begin to shine more brightly the closer one comes to entirely inexplicable moments or persons.

These are the Scylla and Charybdis of bourgeois theology. These are the relative positions of debate, which positions are themselves the acceptable modes of answering the question. Because this is the case, we need to consider developing an articulation of theology that broaches one or the other construction in order to speak lucidly to the culture. To borrow again from Tillich, we must develop an apologetic theology that takes seriously the location and direction of our culture’s theology.

Babylon and Zion stand against one another. The destroying mountain, however, will be undone, while the Mountain of the Lord will stand forever.

Tillich offers a radical vision of the kingdom of god. Some thoughts.